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      galaxies
    How regular magnetic fields in a plasma originated and are sustained is a question of considerable interest, since various objects in space such as spiral arms of galaxies, many stars, and planets have a regular magnetic field [1-3].
          
    Effects of microlensing on parameters of the images seen near the critical curves of gravitational lens galaxies
          
    This object is shown to belong neither to polar ring galaxies nor to close interacting pairs.
          
    Our main goal is to investigate the effects of data incompleteness on the results of Fourier analysis of line-of-sight velocity fields in the disks of spiral galaxies.
          
    The field of purely circular velocities is chosen as the simplest artificial velocity field, because the circular velocities of spiral galaxies are much high than the residual (noncircular) velocities.
          
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      galaxy
    The idea that the Solar System may be representative of planetary systems in the Galaxy in general develops upon the knowledge, current until the last decade of the 20th century, that it is the only object of its kind.
          
    We study the radio galaxy RC J0105+0501 by using observations with RATAN-600, VLA, and 6-m Special Astrophysical Observatory telescope.
          
    The radio source has a structure resembling the FRII type and the spectral index α=1.23; it is identified with a faint galaxy of in Rc.
          
    Based on BVRcIc photometry, we also estimated the age of the stellar population of the radio galaxy.
          
    We also confirm that there is no excess of bursts toward the galaxy M 31.
          
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      galactic
    In this paper I briefly review some methods that are currently used to estimate the mass of black holes, especially those in X-ray binary systems and in galactic nuclei.
          
    Our recent progress in improving the mass estimates of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei by involving some empirical relations is presented.
          
    Finally I point out the similarities and common physics in Galactic black hole X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei, and demonstrate that the black hole mass estimation is very much helpful to understand the accretion physics around black holes.
          
    As many as 118 spectra were approximated by two power laws: the left-hand and galactic branches of the spectrum were fitted by the AE-γ function and a dependence of the CE type, respectively, the sum J(E) = AE-γ + CE providing the total spectrum.
          
    Energy Spectrum of Galactic 10-100 MeV Protons in Quiet Sun Periods
          
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      the galaxy
    The idea that the Solar System may be representative of planetary systems in the Galaxy in general develops upon the knowledge, current until the last decade of the 20th century, that it is the only object of its kind.
          
    We also confirm that there is no excess of bursts toward the galaxy M 31.
          
    The possible existence of binary systems with NS and disk counterrotation in the Galaxy is discussed.
          
    Observations at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory are used to show that the ultrahigh-energy gamma-ray flux from the galaxy Mk 501 varies with a period.
          
    A model for the molecular accretion disk and H2O maser in the nucleus of the galaxy NGC 4258
          
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    Sommaire.—On rappelle tout d'abord les principaux travaux effectués en photométrie des galaxies depuis une trentaine d'années: méthodes de la chambre à courte distance locale, de la Schraffier-Kassette, photoélectrique et du profil photométrique. On applique ensuite la méthode du cercle oculaire de Ch. Fabry à la détermination des magnitudes globales de 175 galaxies et à l'établissement d'une séquence photométrique de 40 nébuleuses groupées dans l'amas Virgo, de magnitude 9, 2 à 13,2. Les mesures faites avec...

    Sommaire.—On rappelle tout d'abord les principaux travaux effectués en photométrie des galaxies depuis une trentaine d'années: méthodes de la chambre à courte distance locale, de la Schraffier-Kassette, photoélectrique et du profil photométrique. On applique ensuite la méthode du cercle oculaire de Ch. Fabry à la détermination des magnitudes globales de 175 galaxies et à l'établissement d'une séquence photométrique de 40 nébuleuses groupées dans l'amas Virgo, de magnitude 9, 2 à 13,2. Les mesures faites avec des diaphragmes d'ouvertures croissantes ont permis de mettre en évidence la contribution des régions périphériques et d'atteindre les magnitudes totales. Il ressort des comparaison des mesures "Fabry" aux résultats donnés par les diverses autres méthodes que: a) La méthode de la chambre à court foyer (Harvard, Lund) conduit à des résultats à la fois imprécis et entachés d'erreur systématique. b) La méthode extrafocale est également entachée d'erreur systématique. c) Les mesures photoélectriques et les magnitudes déduites des profils photométriques sont par contre en très bon accord avec les n()tres. Pour 64 galaxies résolues, la magnitude absolue M est bien représentée par une courbe de Gauss avec fréquence maxima à M=-15, ce qui conduit à doubler l'éclat moyen et par suite la masse moyenne des galaxies d'où un accroissement appréciable de la densité ρ de l'espace. La méthode de Fabry étant beaucoup trop lente pour l'étude de milliers de galaxies, on a cherché s'il serait possible d'obtenir rapidement leurs magnitudes en les comparant aux galaxies de la séquence Virgo. On a vérifié que cette méthode donnait des résultats corrects avec une précision suffisante pour les travaux de statistique: écarts moyens de l'ordre de ±0,2 magnitude.

    本文先敘述三十年來关于河外星系光度方面做過的主要的工作:短焦距照相法,移盒法(Schraffier-Kassette),光電法与谱線轮廓光度法。跟着再提出我们所用的法布里(Ch.Fabry)的圓形目鏡法,和用这个方法测定的175个河外星系的总星等,并由此對於室女座星系圈內,由9.2至13.2星等的40个星系,建立了一个光度序(Séquence photomérique)。使用開孔逐漸增大的光(?)所作的测量,可以綜合周界区的光度,以求星系的总星等。由法布里方法的测量和由别的方法测得的結果比较,表现以下几个事实: a)短焦距照相法(Harvard,Lund)所得的结果,既不精確,又混有系统差在内。 b)焦外照相法也有系统差。 c)光电测量的结果和由轮廓光度導出的星等同我們的测量非常相合。对于64个可以分解的星系,绝對星等M很好发为高斯曲線所代表,其最大频率值在M=-15,由此结果,我們须將河外星系的平均亮度加倍,因此平均质量亦須加倍,于是空间的密度ρ有显著的增加。使用法布里的方法以研究数以千萬計的河外星系,過於缓慢,...

    本文先敘述三十年來关于河外星系光度方面做過的主要的工作:短焦距照相法,移盒法(Schraffier-Kassette),光電法与谱線轮廓光度法。跟着再提出我们所用的法布里(Ch.Fabry)的圓形目鏡法,和用这个方法测定的175个河外星系的总星等,并由此對於室女座星系圈內,由9.2至13.2星等的40个星系,建立了一个光度序(Séquence photomérique)。使用開孔逐漸增大的光(?)所作的测量,可以綜合周界区的光度,以求星系的总星等。由法布里方法的测量和由别的方法测得的結果比较,表现以下几个事实: a)短焦距照相法(Harvard,Lund)所得的结果,既不精確,又混有系统差在内。 b)焦外照相法也有系统差。 c)光电测量的结果和由轮廓光度導出的星等同我們的测量非常相合。对于64个可以分解的星系,绝對星等M很好发为高斯曲線所代表,其最大频率值在M=-15,由此结果,我們须將河外星系的平均亮度加倍,因此平均质量亦須加倍,于是空间的密度ρ有显著的增加。使用法布里的方法以研究数以千萬計的河外星系,過於缓慢,我們曾经研究過把它们和室女座內星系的光度序比较,是不是可以快速地得着它們的星等。结果证明由这方法所得的结果是正确的,精确度可以滿足统计工作的需要:平均差的数量级約為±0.2星等。

    On the basis of new facts and laws revealed by modern astronomy and physics, it seems necessary and expedient to introduce the concept of "cos- moscopic" process, to stand side by side with macroscopic and microscopic processes. Cosmoscopic objects differ from macroscopic objects (things seen everday on the Earth as well as meteoric bodies, small asteroids and satellites) in mass and scale just as much as the difference between macroscopic objects and microscopic objects. Gigantic difference in quantity leads...

    On the basis of new facts and laws revealed by modern astronomy and physics, it seems necessary and expedient to introduce the concept of "cos- moscopic" process, to stand side by side with macroscopic and microscopic processes. Cosmoscopic objects differ from macroscopic objects (things seen everday on the Earth as well as meteoric bodies, small asteroids and satellites) in mass and scale just as much as the difference between macroscopic objects and microscopic objects. Gigantic difference in quantity leads to marked difference in quality. The mechanical motion of celestial bodies, the dynamics of stellar systems, the condensation of self-gravitating gas mass, natural ther- monuclear reactions in stellar interior, the production of forbidden lines in nebulae and outer envelopes of stars, the strong coupling between hydrody- namic phenomena and electromagnetic phenomena, the existence of superdense matter, curvature of space in strong gravitational field, the evolution of celes- tial bodies, all these are examples of cosmoscopic phenomena and processes, and also form the basis on which the cosmoscopic concept is introduced, Stellar dynamics, cosmical electrodynamics, and general theory of relativity are examples of cosmoscopic laws. In cosmoscopic processes, gravitational interaction usually plays a dominant role, and plasma state is the state of matter most often met. The cosmoscopic concept will aid tn understanding more deeply material processes in the inorganic world. It will prevent us from applying without modification to cosmoscopic processes natural laws which strictly speaking applies only to macroscopic processes. Once the cosmoscopic law is understood, man can then create artificially cosmoscopic conditions on the Earth so that processes which only take place naturally in cosmoscopic processes, can then take place on the Earth. Thermonuclear reactions, forbidden lines (now applied so much in "Excited emission") are two examples; artificial cosmic rays, and artificial superdense matter might be realized later. In carrying out simulation experiments, the effect introduced by difference in scale and mass must be kept in mind. Differentiation among cosmocscopic, macroscopic, and microscopic processes shows that dialectical laws operate everywhere in Nature.

    根据现代天文学和物理学的研究结果,有必要在微观和宏观之外建立宇观这个概念。宇观客体和宏观客体在量质和尺度方面的差别不亚於地上常见的宏观客体和微观客体的差别。量的巨大差异导致质的显著不同。天体的机械运动,恒星系统及其成员的运动,质量和体积都很大的气团由於自吸引而产生的凝聚,恒星内部的天然热核反应,星云和恒星外壳中禁戒谱綫的产生,流体运动同磁场的强耦合,天然超密物质的存在,强引力场中空间的弯曲,和天体的演化,这些都是宇观现象和宇观过程的具体例子,也是提出宇观概念的科学依据。星系动力学,宇宙电动力学,广义相对论等是宇观过程规律的例子。在宇观过程中,万有引力常起重要的作用,而等离子态是最普遍的物态,宇观概念将帮助我们更深刻地认识无机界的物质过程。它将使我们不致於把只适用於宏观过程的规律不加改变地就用於宇观过程的探讨上。在掌握了宇观规律的基础上,可以在地上用人工方法创造宇观条件,使那些只有在宇观条件下才能够天然地发生的过程,如热核反应,禁戒谱綫,物质的高度密集,宇宙綫等,在地上也能发生。进行模拟实验时应当注意质量和尺度的差异所引起的质的不同。宇观、宏观、微观的区别说明了辩证规律在自然界中处处在作...

    根据现代天文学和物理学的研究结果,有必要在微观和宏观之外建立宇观这个概念。宇观客体和宏观客体在量质和尺度方面的差别不亚於地上常见的宏观客体和微观客体的差别。量的巨大差异导致质的显著不同。天体的机械运动,恒星系统及其成员的运动,质量和体积都很大的气团由於自吸引而产生的凝聚,恒星内部的天然热核反应,星云和恒星外壳中禁戒谱綫的产生,流体运动同磁场的强耦合,天然超密物质的存在,强引力场中空间的弯曲,和天体的演化,这些都是宇观现象和宇观过程的具体例子,也是提出宇观概念的科学依据。星系动力学,宇宙电动力学,广义相对论等是宇观过程规律的例子。在宇观过程中,万有引力常起重要的作用,而等离子态是最普遍的物态,宇观概念将帮助我们更深刻地认识无机界的物质过程。它将使我们不致於把只适用於宏观过程的规律不加改变地就用於宇观过程的探讨上。在掌握了宇观规律的基础上,可以在地上用人工方法创造宇观条件,使那些只有在宇观条件下才能够天然地发生的过程,如热核反应,禁戒谱綫,物质的高度密集,宇宙綫等,在地上也能发生。进行模拟实验时应当注意质量和尺度的差异所引起的质的不同。宇观、宏观、微观的区别说明了辩证规律在自然界中处处在作用着。

    (i)Using 146 cepheids selected from the data listed by Kraft and Schmidt,the variation of Δω(R) with R is computed by means of Camm's method.Then,the re- sult is fitted to the curve of Δω(R) computed from the observational data of 21 cm emission of neutral hydrogen,obtained at Leiden.The value of R_0,the sun's distance from the galactic centre,is found to be 11.0 kpc. (ii)Using the proper motions of 17 cepheids (omitting W Gem) given by Blaauw and Morgan,the angular velocity of rotation ω(R_0) for the solar...

    (i)Using 146 cepheids selected from the data listed by Kraft and Schmidt,the variation of Δω(R) with R is computed by means of Camm's method.Then,the re- sult is fitted to the curve of Δω(R) computed from the observational data of 21 cm emission of neutral hydrogen,obtained at Leiden.The value of R_0,the sun's distance from the galactic centre,is found to be 11.0 kpc. (ii)Using the proper motions of 17 cepheids (omitting W Gem) given by Blaauw and Morgan,the angular velocity of rotation ω(R_0) for the solar neighbourhood is com- puted.The resulting value is 23 km/sec/kpc.Therefore the linear rotational velocity V(R_0) is 250 km/sec. (iii)Making use of the curve of Δω(R),values of ω(R),V(R),F(R),A(R),and B(R) are calculated in the region from 5 to 14 kpc from the galactic centre.Lastly,a comparison is made between the values of V(R) computed and the results obtained from the dynamical theory of stable stellar systems.

    (i)利用克拉夫特和施密特列出的造父变星资料中146个星的资料,用加姆方法计算了Δω(R)随 R 的变化.结果同根据莱顿天文台得到的21厘米氢线发射的观测资料计算出的Δω(R)镶合,定出太阳离银心的距离 R_0=11.0千秒差距.(ii)利用伯劳乌和摩根给出的17个造父变星(W Gem 除外)的自行资料,算得太阳邻近的银河系自转角速度ω(R_0)=23公里/秒/千秒差距,因而得自转速度 V(R_0)=250公里/秒.(iii)利用Δω(R)曲线计算了在R=5至14千秒差距区域内,ω(R)、V(R)、F(R)、A(R)和 B(R)的数值.最后,将 V(R)的数值同稳定星系动力学理论的结果作了比较.

     
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